Tyler Prize Laureate 1984: among the early scientists to study anthropogenic global warming
After World War II, Revelle was deeply involved in the growth of oceanography. Working for the Navy he embraced the idea that the Navy fund "basic research" in ocean science.
Together with Hans Suess, Revelle showed that fossil fuels do increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, in a landmark study that clearly showed the ocean is incapable of absorbing all our emissions.
(Charles David Keeling had joined Revelle at Scripts the previous year, and began tracking the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. He would later win the Tyler Prize for this work)
Roger R. Revelle plays a key role in Project Mohole, the first attempt to drill a hole through the Earth's crust on the ocean floor in order to study the geology and structure of the Earth's mantle
Roger. R. Revelle, on the release of greenhouse gasses
Tyler Prize Laureate 1989, a marine chemist known for his studies of pollution in the oceans.
Goldberg creates Mussel Watch to track toxic chemicals in the ocean by measuring the effects on shellfish.
Sampling ocean water is not a reliable way to measure levels of polutants. The success of Mussel Watch transformed marine chemistry, and today mussels are commonly used as a bioindicator of metals in the environment.
Goldberg warns of the dangers of soot in the paper Black carbon in the environment. He describes how 'black carbon' from engines and coal-fired power plants impacts climate, weather, and human health.
Tyler Prize Laureate 2015, a marine ecologist and policy leader
As President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Lubchenco popularized the "social contract" scientists have with society, and the need for science that serves humanity. She created the Earth Leadership Program (1998), COMPASS (1999), and Climate Central (2003) to train scientists to communicate with the public.
Lubchenco showes that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) result in significant increases in fish, spilling over into the area outside the reserve. She proposes the concept of MPA networks to support fish migration.
Whilst initially hesitant, fishermen near marine reserves noticed the benefits and pushed for more reserves (2014).
Lubchenco is appointed the Administrator of NOAA - the first woman to occupy the position. The same year, she is nominated into Barack Obama's "Science Team" as an advisor to the President.
In this position, she crafted the United States' National Ocean Policy, adopted by President Obama as the nation's first formal policy on oceans.
Lubchenco testifies before the US Congress showing how carbon dioxide leads to the acidification of oceans
Tyler Prize Laureate 2018: renowned oceanographer with significant contributions to the study of climate change
McCarthy was one of the first scientists to suggest that increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could lead to acidification of the oceans and have serious consequences for marine ecosystems
He went on to study the resulting impact on a range of marine life, from plankton to coral reefs.
James J. McCarthy served as the co-chair of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and went on to serve as IPCC chair (2001 - 2008).
His chapter on ocean acidification in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (2007) helped to raise awareness of this important issue among policymakers and the public.
McCarthy testifies before the U.S. Congress along with other prominent climate scientists, highlighting the urgent need for action to address climate change.
Tyler Prize Laureate 2018: renowned marine scientist and innovator
Falkowski pioneers the use of 'fluorescence' to understand photosynthesis rates in phytoplankton, and therefore the health of our ocean. He noticed that he could measure changes in the light emitting from phytoplankton in the ocean to understand ocean health.
This technique is now widely used in oceanography.
Falkowski discovers how photosynthesis works in tiny ocean plants called phytoplankton. He found that phytoplankton use a unique type of chlorophyll, which allows them to capture light energy more efficiently in low-light conditions.
Falkowski and his team pioneer methods for tracing the flow of nutrients - such as carbon and nitrogen - through the ocean. This reveals new information for how the marine food web functions.